The Impact of Brand Awareness and Country of Origin on Purchase Intention with Mediation of Self Congruity on Chinese Brand Automotive Products Wuling

  • Erick Setiadi MM Batch 16
  • Michael Adiwijaya Faculty of Business and Economics, Petra Christian University, Jl. Siwalankerto 121-131, Surabaya 60236, INDONESIA
  • Hartono Subagio Faculty of Business and Economics, Petra Christian University, Jl. Siwalankerto 121-131, Surabaya 60236, INDONESIA
Keywords: Brand Awareness, country of origin, self congruity, purchase intention


This study aims to analyze the relationship of Brand Awareness and Country of Origin by using Self Congruity as a mediation for Purchase Intention. This causal study used a questionnaire based survey as a data collection method and was distributed to 200 respondents which is a sample of this study. The selection of this research sample used a purposive sampling technique with criteria determined by the researcher. The results showed that the three hypotheses in this study have a significant influence and two hypotheses were rejected. all indicators on the related variables can be developed using PLS data (Partial Least Square). In addition, this study shows that Self Congruity as the most influential variables affecting respondents Purchase Intention toward Wuling car.


Aaker, J. L. (2013). Dimensions of Brand, 34(3), 347–356.
Authors, F. (2016). Industrial Management & Data Systems relationship Article
Barbara, Bodo B. Schlegelmilch, S. Z. (2015). International Marketing in the Fast Changing World, 340.
Basfirinci, C. (2013). Effect of brand origin on brand personality perceptions: an empirical analysis from Turkey. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics.
Chao, P. (1998). Impact of Country-of-Origin Dimensions on Product Quality and Design Quality Perceptions. Journal of Business Research, 42(1), 1–6.
Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: The Role of Brand Loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 81–93.
Chi, H. K., Yeh, H. R., & Yang, Y. T. (2009). The Impact of Brand Awareness on Consumer Purchase Intention : The Mediating Effect of Perceived Quality and Brand Loyalty. Journal of International Management Studies, 4(1), 135–144.
Clark, C. R., Doraszelski, U., & Draganska, M. (2009). The effect of advertising on brand awareness and perceived quality: An empirical investigation using panel data. Quantitative Marketing and Economics, 7(2), 207–236.
Demangeot, C., & Broderick, A. J. (2010). Consumer Perceptions of Online Shopping Environments. Psychology & Marketing, 30(6), 461–469.
Dholakia, U. M., & Herrmann, A. (2005). The Social Influence of Brand Community : Evidence from, 69(July), 19–34.
Malik, M., Ghafoor, M., Iqbal, H., Riaz, U., Hassan, N., Mustafa, M., & Shahbaz, S. (2013). Importance of Brand Awareness and Brand Loyalty in assessing Purchase Intentions of Consumer. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(5), 165–170.
Elliott, G. R., & Cameron, R. C. (2010). and Perception the Country-of-Origin of Product Quality in. Quality, 2(2), 49–62.
Ericksen, M. K. (1997). Using Self-congruity and Ideal Congruity to Predict Purchase Intention. Journal of Euromarketing, 6(1), 41–56.
Fetscherin, M., Diamantopoulos, A., Chan, A., & Abbott, R. (2015). How are brand names of Chinese companies perceived by Americans? Journal of Product & Brand Management, 24(2), 110–123.
Francis, J. N. P., Lam, J. P. Y., & Walls, J. (2002). Executive insights: The impact of linguistic differences on international brand name standardization: A comparison of English and Chinese brand names of Fortune-500 companies. Journal of International Marketing, 10(1), 98–116.
Fuller, J. (2006). Association for consumer research. Advances in Consumer Research, 33, 212–217.
Gao, T. (Tony), Sultan, F., & Rohm, A. J. (2010). Factors influencing Chinese youth consumers’ acceptance of mobile marketing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 27(7), 574–583.
Godey, B., Pederzoli, D., Aiello, G., Donvito, R., Chan, P., Weitz, B. (2012). Brand and country-of-origin effect on consumers’ decision to purchase luxury products. Journal of Business Research, 65(10), 1461–1470.
Ha, H., & Janda, S. (n.d.). Brand personality and its outcomes in the Chinese automobile industry, (November 2014), 37–41.
Hughes, G. D., & Guerrero, J. L. (2016). Self-Congruity Reexamined, 8(1), 125–127.
Indicadores, E. L. O. S., Efecto, D. E. L., Por, D. E. L. P., El, P., & México, C. D. E. (2010). Exploring the Country-of-Origin Indicators Across Product Categories : the Case of Mexico and Chile, 3(Junio), 33–49.
Jacoby, J., Olson, J. C., & Haddock, R. A. (1971). Price, Brand Name, and Product Characteristics as Determinants of Perceived Quality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 55(No. 6), 570–579.
Jalilvand, M. R., Samiei, N., & Mahdavinia, S. H. (2011). The Effect of Brand Equity Components on Purchase Intention :, 2(2), 149–158.
Jamal, A., & Goode, M. M. H. (2001). Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self‐image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 19(7), 482–492.
Jianlin, W. U., Ning, Z. H. U., & Qi, D. a I. (2010). Consumer Ethnocentrism , Product Attitudes and Purchase Intentions of Domestic Products in China. International Conference on Engineering and Business Management, (Ebm), 2262–2265.
Jiménez, N., & Martín, S. (2014). The mediation of trust in country-of-origin effects across countries. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 21(2), 150–171.
Jin, J., & Zedtwitz, M. (2008). Technological capability development in China’s mobile phone industry. Technovation, 28(6), 327–334.
Josiassen, A., & Assaf, A. (2010). Country‐of‐origin contingencies: their joint influence on consumer behaviour. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 22(3), 294–313.
Keller, K. L. (2001). Building Customer-Based Brand Equity : A Blueprint for Creating Strong Brands Building Customer-Based Brand Equity : A Blueprint for Creating Strong Brands. Journal of Marketing Communications, 15(2–3), 139–155.
Khare, A., & Handa, M. (2009). Role of individual self-concept and brand personality congruence in determining brand choice. Innovative Marketing, 5(4), 63–71.
Kim, H. W., Chan, H. C., & Gupta, S. (2007). Value-based Adoption of Mobile Internet: An empirical investigation. Decision Support Systems, 43(1), 111–126.
Kim, J., & Lennon, S. J. (2013). Effects of reputation and website quality on online consumers’ emotion, perceived risk and purchase intention. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 7(1), 33–56.
Kshetri, N., & Cheung, M. (2002). What factors are driving China’s mobile diffusion? Electronic Markets, 12(1), 22–26.
Laukkanen, T., & Lauronen, J. (2005). Consumer value creation in mobile banking services. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 3(4), 325–338.
Lee, Y. H., & Ang, K. S. (2003). Brand name suggestiveness: A Chinese language perspective. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20(4), 323–335.
Leek, S., & Christodoulides, G. (2012). A framework of brand value in B2B markets: The contributing role of functional and emotional components. Industrial Marketing Management, 41(1), 106–114.
Li, S., Hao, S., Erin, C., Li, S., Hao, S., Erin, C., Wang, S. (2010). Article information :
Liang, D., Ma, Z., & Qi, L. (2013). Service quality and customer switching behavior in China’s mobile phone service sector. Journal of Business Research, 66(8), 1161–1167.
Liefeld, J. P. (2004). Consumer knowledge and use of country-of-origin information at the point of purchase. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 4(2), 85–87.
Listiana, E. (2013). Pengaruh Country of origin terhadap Perceived Quality Dengan Moderasi Etnosentris Konsumen. Universitas Tanjung Pura, 8(1), 25–51.
Liu, F., Li, J., Mizerski, D., & Soh, H. (2012). Self‐congruity, brand attitude, and brand loyalty: a study on luxury brands. European Journal of Marketing, 46(7/8), 922–937.
Macdonald, E. K., & Sharp, B. M. (2000). Brand Awareness Effecs on Consumer Decision Making for a Common, Repeat Purchase Product: A Replication. Journal of Business Research, 48(1), 5–15.
Marketing, E. (2009). From Brand Values.
Martensen, A. (2007). Tweens’ satisfaction and brand loyalty in the mobile phone market. Young Consumers, 8(2), 108–116.
Martínez‐Carrasco, L., Brugarolas, M., Martínez‐Poveda, A., Ruiz, J. J., & García‐Martínez, S. (2012). Modelling perceived quality of tomato by structural equation analysis. British Food Journal, 114(10), 1414–1431.
Merisavo, M., Kajalo, S., Karjaluoto, H., Virtanen, V., Salmenkivi, S., Raulas, M., & Leppäniemi, M. (2007). An Empirical Study of the Drivers of Consumer Acceptance of Mobile Advertising. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7(2), 41–50.
Yasin, N., Noor, M., & Mohamad, O. (2007). Does image of country‐of‐origin matter to brand equity? Journal of Product & Brand Management, 16(1), 38–48.
Mostafa, R. H. A. (2015). The Impact of Country of origin and Country of Manufacture of a Brand on Overall Brand Equity. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 7(2), 70–83.
Oh, H. (2000). The Effect of Brand Class, Brand Awareness, and Price on Customer Value and Behavioral Intentions. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 24(2), 136–162.
Pappu, R., Quester, P. G., & Cooksey, R. W. (2006). Consumer‐based brand equity and country‐of‐origin relationships. European Journal of Marketing, 40(5/6), 696–717.
Park, J., Yang, S., & Lehto, X. (2007). Adoption of Mobile Technologies for Chinese Consumers. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 8(3), 196–206.
Park, Y., & Chen, J. V. (2007). Acceptance and adoption of the innovative use of smartphone. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 107(9), 1349–1365.
Quattrociocchi, W., Caldarelli, G., & Scala, A. (2014). Opinion dynamics on interacting networks: Media competition and social influence. Scientific Reports, 4, 1–7.
Rohm, A. J., Gao, T. (Tony), Sultan, F., & Pagani, M. (2012). Brand in the hand: A cross-market investigation of consumer acceptance of mobile marketing. Business Horizons, 55(5), 485–493.
Roll, M. (2008). China branding: opportunities and challenges. Business Strategy Series, 9(5), 231–237.
Sheng, M. L., & Teo, T. S. H. (2012). Product attributes and brand equity in the mobile domain: The mediating role of customer experience. International Journal of Information Management, 32(2), 139–146.
Shih, H. P. (2004). An empirical study on predicting user acceptance of e-shopping on the Web. Information and Management, 41(3), 351–368.
Sirgy, M. J. (1985). Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase motivation. Journal of Business Research, 13(3), 195–206.
Souiden, N., Pons, F., & Mayrand, M. (2011). Marketing high‐tech products in emerging markets: the differential impacts of country image and country‐of‐origin’s image. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 20(5), 356–367.
Sweeney, J., & Soutar, G. (2001). Consumer perceived value: the development of a multiple item scale. Journal of Retailing, 77(2), 203–220.
Thanasuta, K., Patoomsuwan, T., Chaimahawong, V., & Chiaravutthi, Y. (2009). Brand and country of origin valuations of automobiles. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 21(3), 355–375.
Tong, X., & Hawley, J. M. (2009). Creating brand equity in the Chinese clothing market. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 13(4), 566–581.
Turel, O., Serenko, A., & Bontis, N. (2010). User acceptance of hedonic digital artifacts: A theory of consumption values perspective. Information and Management, 47(1), 53–59.
Wang, X., Yang, Z., & Liu, N. R. (2009). The impacts of brand personality and congruity on purchase intention: Evidence from the Chinese mainland’s automobile market. Journal of Global Marketing, 22(3), 199–215.
Yang, K., & Jolly, L. D. (2009). The effects of consumer perceived value and subjective norm on mobile data service adoption between American and Korean consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16(6), 502–508.
Chan & E. W. T. Ngai. (2011). Marketing Intelligence & Planning Article information : Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 29(5), 488–516.
Yusof, J. M., Singh, G. K. B., & Razak, R. A. (2013). Purchase Intention of Environment-Friendly Automobile. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 85, 400–410.
Zeithaml. (1988a). of Consumer Perceptions A Means-End Value : Quality , and and Model Synthesis of Evidence, 52(July), 2–22.
Zeithaml, V. (1988b). Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 22.
Zhu, H., Wang, Q., Yan, L., & Wu, G. (2009). Are consumers what they consume? - Linking lifestyle segmentation to