Author Guidelines

Guide for Authors


Petra International Journal of Business Studies (Petra IJBS) is a peer-reviewed journal published under the Master of Management, School of Business and Management, Petra Christian University, Indonesia (MM SBM PCU). It aims to provide business-related theoretical and managerial contributions to scholars and practitioners. Petra IJBS welcomes submissions of manuscripts, most notably in management, marketing, finance, and accounting.

Publications of articles related to the aforementioned fields of inquiry are made twice a year (Jan-June, and July-Dec). The latter ensures proper dissemination of information under the law enforced by the Indonesian Ministry of Higher Education.

Publishing Essentials

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with others or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose interests in the Journal Publishing Agreement Form.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publications' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.  To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if the journal Editor approves. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in the author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement. In the case of adding or removing authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.

Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the authors' addition, deletion, or rearrangement after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Open Access

Articles published in the Petra International Journal of Business Studies (Petra IJBS) will be Open-Access articles distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). This allows for immediate free access to the work and permits any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose. 

Copyright Notice

Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:

Authors retain unrestricted copyright and full publishing rights without restrictions and grant the Publisher right of first publication. The work is simultaneously licensed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 


Uploading manuscript

All manuscripts must be submitted through the online submission site of this journal ( 


Submission checklist

Designation and contact details of the corresponding author

  • E-mail address
  • Postal address

 Necessary files to be uploaded

  • Manuscript
  • Supplemental files (if any)

 Additional consideration

  • Ensure spelling and grammar checks for the manuscript
  • Ensure coherence of citations in the manuscript and the list of references
  • Ensure permission is granted for the use of copyrighted material from other sources
  • A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare (from Petra IJBS)
  • Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed (from Petra IJBS)
  • Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements (from Petra IJBS)

Basic manuscript format

Excluding the title and abstract pages, all articles to be published are less than 20 pages, have a 3 cm margin on top, 2.5 cm margins on left-right, and 2 cm margin on bottom sides, two columns, and use 11-point fonts times new roman style. All-inclusive, the final accepted manuscripts have less than 6,800-word counts. The title page informs the title, author(s), and affiliation(s). This is followed by an abstract between 50 to 200 words, including a list of three to six keywords. The title, not the author’s name, should reappear on page 2, ensuring anonymity for reviewing purposes. Page 3 and beyond are reserved for the main content of the article. 

  • File types: Word or RTF
  • Typeface: Times New Roman, 11 points
  • Text: Single-spaced, justified
  • Page layout: 3 cm margin on top, 2.5 cm margins on left-right, 2 cm margin on bottom sides.

Manuscript elements

The double-blind peer-review process of this journal requires two separate files for each submission of the article: (1) the Title Page and (2) the Main Content. Please do not include any identifying information anywhere within the Main Content file.  See the Journal Template for detailed manuscript elements and format description on The Title Page and the main content. 

File 1: Title Page

  • Title
  • Author(s) name, title, institution, e-mail address, postal address, telephone number
  • Author(s) note
  • Acknowledgment (If applicable)
  • Financial disclosure (if applicable)

File 2: Main Content

Page 2

  • Title
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Page 3 and beyond
  • Main text
    • Introduction
    • Literature Review
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Conclusion
  • References
  • Footnotes (if any)
  • Appendices (if any)

Manuscript format


The title should be clear and concise, with the capital first letter, center, font Times New Roman, bold, 14pt. 

Abstract (Times New Roman 11 pt, 50 - 200 words)

The abstract (Times New Roman 10 pt ) should be clear, concise, and easily comprehensible by non-specialists. The abstract summarizes the main elements of the paper, preferably related to the study's values, purposes, methods, and findings. It should not contain any references or equations. The abstract offers a snapshot of the manuscript by summarizing its key components.

Main text

The writing of the main text must adhere to the following template or the authors can download di paper template provided in the Template Menu:

1. Introduction (500 – 1000 words)

(Times New Roman, 11 pt, Justify) This section aims to entice the reader to the core compelling aspects of the research undertaken. State the motivation of the research by highlighting critical managerial and theoretical contexts being addressed in the study. By avoiding a detailed literature survey or summarized results of the study, a good introduction should:

  • States broad theme or topic of the study
  • Highlights academic and practical importance
  • Cites most important prior studies relevant to the current research
  • Emphasizes the most crucial knowledge gaps, inconsistencies, and controversies the current research addresses.
  • Indicates the research problem/questions, specific objectives, and the context of the current research

2. Literature Review (800 – 1500 words)

2.1 Sub Heading 

 (Times New Roman, 11 pt, Justify) This section represents the theoretical underpinnings of the current research. First of all, the theory section should extend, not repeat, those that have been introduced as a background of the study. Secondly, the results of the literature survey provide the readers with (1) a background of the selected theories and concepts relevant to the current research, (2) a summary (i.e., critical evaluations, organization, and synthesis) of relevant but pertinent previous studies, and (3) a critical inquiry (agreement or disagreement with the previous theoretical positioning and research findings) of the summary.


Footnotes are to be used carefully and must be concise if you are okay with it. Most articles contain at most 10 footnotes, and each footnote should be at most 40 words. Format footnotes in plain text, with a superscript number appearing in the text and the corresponding note after the reference section.

 3. Methods (500 – 1000 words)

           (Times New Roman, 11 pt, Justify) This section provides sufficient details about the design and execution of the current research and the justification for using specific research methods. The details allow readers and independent researchers to evaluate the reliability and validity of the findings and replicate the current research. The following sub-sections are typical in the writing of Methods:

  • Sampling
    • Target population, research context, units of analysis
    • Sampling method
    • Respondent profile
  • Data collection methods and processes
  • Measures

4. Result (800 – 1500 words)

(Times New Roman, 11 pt, Justify) Results should be clear and concise, which provide interpretations of the data analysis summary (descriptive and inferential). Sufficient details must cover the use and justification of specific statistical analyses and the description and interpretation of results, the latter covering both the confirmed or rejected hypotheses of the current research.

Figures and Tables

Photographs, charts, illustrations, and diagrams are called “Figure(s).” All figures and tables should be placed within the text and identified with consecutive Arabic (not Roman) numbers in the order they are referred to (separate numbers for tables and figures). All lettering, lines, and symbols must be of uniform size, drawn in black-and-white prints, and cropped to remove irrelevant information. It is better to use several simple tables than one large, complex table. All figures should be precise and suitable for reduction (up to 50% original size). Lettering must be clear and large enough to be reduced by the same proportion. A self-explanatory caption must accompany all tables and figures. The Caption for the Figure is placed below the figure, while the Table caption is placed above the table. Table content must be formatted in Times New Roman, 10 pt. Only horizontal lines in the table must be raised, and the vertical lines are hidden. The table’s title is in Times New Roman 10 pt and capital letters only at the beginning of the sentence (Sentence case format).

Then, the picture’s title must be formatted in Times New Roman 10 pt and capital letters only at the beginning of the sentence (Sentence case format). The authors bear the cost of color printing so that you may consider gray-scaling images before submission.

 Table 1. This is the table’s title (Times New Roman, 10pt)

Figures are placed immediately after their appearance in the text. Figures are numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals. Image captions are placed below the image. The writing of the image caption uses Times New Roman 10 pt, bold, and is placed as in the example. Images that other authors have published must obtain written permission from the author and publisher. Images displayed in the article must be of good quality; for photos, the minimum resolution is 300 dpi. Fonts used in creating images or graphics should be familiar to every word processor and operating system, such as Symbol, Times New Roman, and Arial, with a size of no less than 8 pt. Figure numbering is separate from table numbering.

Figure 1. Type the figure title here


If Appendices are provided, they appear on a new page after the figures. Multiple appendixes are labeled with letters (Appendix A, Appendix B). A single appendix is labeled without letters (Appendix). Multiple appendixes must be numbered in the order in which they are to appear.

5. Discussion (800 – 1500 words)

(Times New Roman, 11 pt, Justify) The discussion section is the most critical section of a scientific article. It elaborates on the significance of the results for both the current and prior relevant research. Please don't restate the findings reported in the result section nor add additional reports not stated earlier. Some authors combine the writing of results and discussion to provide a seamless transition between findings and the significance of findings. The following sub-sections are typical in the writing:

  • Summary of findings (often linked with theoretical contributions)
  • Managerial implications
  • Limitations and directions of the future research. 

6. Conclusion (100-300 words)

(Times New Roman, 11 pt, Justify) A conclusion section should be brief and may act as a standalone section or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.


 References begin on their page and are listed alphabetically by the first author's last name. Only references cited within the text are included. All references should be in 11-point font and single-spaced. For both the submitted and accepted-for-publication, IJBS uses the American Psychological Association (APA) style in the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Mathematical notations

Could you place any equations in the center of the page? For multiple equations, number each equation with parentheses flush with the right margin. Use Equation Editor where applicable in any word processing software.

Petra IJBS subscribes to the reference formatting issued by the APA 6th edition and the use of reference management software such as Mendeley, Zotero, or EndNote. Authors are encouraged to use the Mendeley Reference Manager and Citation Generator for in-text citations and bibliography. 


Each footnote is in plain text, numbered superscript style, and should not exceed 40 words. Accepted articles contain at most ten footnotes, each of which should be at most 40 words and must be concise. 


Proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.

You can still annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version if preferred. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.

We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness, and correctness of the text, tables, and figures. Just so you know – significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. Ensuring that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication is essential. Please check carefully before replying, as the inclusion of any subsequent modifications cannot be guaranteed. You should only be able to proofread it.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days of free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form, which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via IJBS's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

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